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Types of Communication, Functions and Scope, Early forms of Communication, Emergence of Mass Media, Models of Communication, Aristotle, Claude EShanon & Warren Weaver, Wilbur Schramm, Harold D Lasswell, Charles E Osgood, Gerbner, New Comb, David Berle, SMCR, Becker, Riley and Riley, De Fleur, Westety & Maclean, Concepts of Communication – Indian, Eastern, Western Concepts (Christian, Gandhian), Mass Media Effects – Violence, obscenity, attitude and behavioural changes, typology of audience & critical consumer – culture and communication – Roland Barthes, Herbert Schiller, Noam Choamsky & Manufacturing content -typologies of mass culture – trends in semiotic studies, Normative Theories of Press – Authoritarian, Libertarian, Socialist-Communist, Social Responsibility, Development Media & Democratic participant Press Theories, Globalisation – Features, Trends, Challenges, ICE¬ICEET, Narrowcasting, Demassification, Convergence, Accessibility, Reach, International Information Order, Present Scenario of Mass Media, Development Communication – Origin, meaning, concept, definition, philosophy, process, theories, trends, future. Role of Communication, information, technology & mass media in development.


News – Concepts, elements, values. Sources of News, Techniques of news gathering and dissemination. News flow, Predictable & Unpredictable News; Soft news and Hard news, anticipated news, follow ups, slanting /advocacy. News Story – Structure of news, story inverted pyramid and other styles. Principles of News Writing. intro, body, back grounding, conclusions and their variations; different kinds of lead; changing styles of news writing. Reporting speeches, seminars,
conferences, press conferences, meet the press, briefing, demonstrations, rallies, agitations, press releases, court proceedings, legislature, parliament, Govt. and Non Govt. Reporter – Qualities and Functions, social responsibility. types of Correspondents, Development news; science & technical news, election news, accidents, death, crime, war disasters, conflicts, obituaries, weather and human interest stories. Cultural Reporting. Art of Interviewing, techniques and strategies for interViews. Types of Interviews -Investigative, interpretative, embedded, in-depth, cheque-book, Page Three & Local Page, aggressive, yellow, paparazzi, tabloid, precision, intimate, public service, laid-back, citizen journalism and planting stories.

3.Editing and Media Law

Editing-Introduction, principle, need, functions. Line editing, creative editing and design editing. Style sheet/ book, Editing Process -Selecting, Examining, Checking, Correcting, Condensing, slanted stories, integrating copy from different sources. Rewriting- leads and stories, Editing News Agency copy. Bureau copy. Functions and trends in writing Headlines, Writing editorials and middle pieces. Principles of Page Makeup & Design, Traditional, Contemporary and Computer Aided Design (CAD). Dummy preparation, pagination. Layout & Design of pages. Photo editing and caption writing. News room set up – Editorial duties and functions. New trends in editing – Emergence of Special Editors, Page Editors, Spot Editors. Readers Editor, News Ombudsman. News casters.
Freedom of Press & Parliamentary Privileges. Press Legislations in India. Press Council Act of 1978-Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act of 1995. Information Technology Bill, Cable Television Act, Cyber Laws-Censorship guidelines-Press Accreditation Rules. Legal Bodies & Commissions-Press Council of India-Advertising Standards Council of India -Press Ombudsman-Legal Bodies- Guidelines & Broadcast Codes. Right to information Act 2005.


Origin and Growth of International Journalism Scenario, Beginning of Journalism in India. Contributions of Christian Missionaries in Indian Journalism. History of language press-Characteristics and growth of Malayalam Journalism – Prominent Newspaper and journalists in Ivlalayalarn. History of Indian Broadcasting AIR Doordarshan- aims, objectives and functions_ Private Satellite Channels, High definition TV Education, Instructional N, INSAT Commercial Broadcasting, FM Radio, Satellite & Internet Radio. Impact of technology. History of Indian Cinema & Milestones. Media in pre-independence Era. National lenders and the media. Contributions of Mahatma Gandhi, javvaharial Nehru, Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Indian Press and freedom struggle. Indian press after freedom. The History of English Daily Newspapers in India. Press Commission and Committees. Recommendations. A K Chanda, B G Varghese, P.C.joshi, Kuldip Nagar, justice Mansana. News agencies and syndicates. Professional Organizations, RNI, Press Council of India, IIMC Press Institute of India, PIB .PTI. UN!. INS. Publication Division, AMIC, Prasar Bharathi.

5.Public Relations

Public Relations- Concepts, functions and characteristics. PR -Propaganda, Publicity, Public Opinion, Advertising, Persuasion. PR- PR Professional Organization -IPRA, PR I. PIB, DPR, DAVP Films Division, Directorate of Field Publicity, Song & Drama Division. Public Relations Tools, Instruments, Channels-Preparing & planning-House Journals, News letters. Hand outs, Brochures, Meet the press. Press releases. Lobbying, Press conferences. Annual Meetings, Open houses. Exhibitions, Speeches, Seminars, Symposia, Demonstrations, Information Dockets, Conducted Tours, Gossips, Rumours, Interviews, Publicity materials & Corporate Films, Public Relations Departments/Agencies-Publics, internal, External-Organizational set up. structure, characteristics, role, functions. Public Relations :n public and private sectors ,Event management. PR and use of Mass Media-Print, Radio, Film, Television, Video, Traditional Media, Photographs, Internet. PR & Corporate Communication.


Advertising -Definition, Functions and Relevance. Classification of advertising. Role of advertising in Marketing, Marketing mix. Structure of an Advertisement/TN, Commercial. Ad Campaign. Advertising Agency-system, structure and functions. Indian Ad agencies. International Ad agencies. Cannes & Ad festivals. Major Publications- A & M, 4Ps,U5P Age, Pitch, Ad Age, Brand Equity, Catalyst. Advertising Media-Media selection, scheduling & Media Mix- Print, Radio, Television, Film & Internet, Telephone, SMS, Out door. Direct Mail & Web advertising. Infomercials, Webrnercials, Advertorials, Advertising Research-Scope, objectives & methods. Professional Organizations. Code of Ethics, ASCI and its code of conduct Advertising and Public Relations, Publicity. Economic and social asoects of advertising. Trends in contemporary Advertising.

7.Rodio. T.V. and Cinema

Characteristics of Radio broadcasting. The unique features of radio language. Basic production techniques in radio broadcasting, equipments, sound management, sound effects. Characteristics of TV, Basic production equipment – camera, lens, balance, depth of field, production control room. Writing for radio and TV. Writing news —Radio and TV. News bulletin production. Scripting for Radio and TV interviews. Talks, Discussion magazine programmes and special audience programmes. Outside Broadcast. Stages in production. Various Kinds of Shots & Camera movements, Basic creative Editing & Lighting. Offline & online editing, linear & nonlinear editing. Introduction to Cinema- World Cinema, Indian Cinema and Malayalam Cinema. Contemporary Indian Cinema & World Cinema and Malayalam Cinema.

8.Magazine Journalism

Origin and growth of magazine. Definitions Classifcation of
Magazine. General magazines Specialized magazines, Niche Magazines. Early Magazines & contributions-Pioneers & Doyens in periodical publishing. Time, News Week, Sun, Economist, Reader’s Digest, Wall Street Journal etc. Trends in Periodical & Magazine Journalism. On-line Magazines & Future. Production & Classification of Magazines. Special issues & Supplements. Feature Syndicates -Role, functions. Planning & Launching a Magazine. Readership surveys, content studies, Market Research. Advertisement Research. Magazines – Major publishing houses and Magazines in India. Magazine Editor-duties, responsibilities, functions Publishing House-hierarchy, organizational structure, functions Indian Magazines& Emergency. Prominent Editors in Magazine field. Magazines in Kerala-Early Magazines in Kerala-beginning, growth, metamorphosis, contributions. Prominent Editors, Publishing Houses & Major Magazines in Kerala.

9.Business Journalism

Business Journalism & Financial Reporting- Origin, definitions, elements, principles, features, growth, developments, functions, importance, roles, styles, trends, prospects &drawbacks.- Global&National Perspectives-Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, Fortune, Economist, Bloomberg etc. History of Indian Business Journalism & Financial Reporting-Origin, Definitions, elements, features, growth, developments, functions, importance, roles, styles, trends-Factors contributed for the growth of Indian Business Journalism. Green revolution, white revolution, population policy, bank nationalization, Information Technology, Bio-Technology, Telecommunication policies- (NEP) New Economic Policy, -LPG-Li beralization, Privatization, Globalization, FILL- Commercial Banks & NBFI. Money & MarkLis.:Financial Instruments-Equity, Stock, Share.
Bond, Debenture, Cheques, Draft, Credit Card, ATM, Loans, Subsidies. Stock Exchanges-Wall Street, Bullion Market, Dalai Street, NASDAQ, NSE, BS E, Elements of Stock Exchanges-Bear, Bull, Sheep-Brokers & Sub Brokers-SEBI, Reserve Bank of India, NABARD, IDBI-Features, organization, functions etc. international Financial institutions IMF, WTO, World Bank, ADB, European Union, 09 etc-
World Development Reports_ Five Year Plans-goals,objectives, drawbacks-critical review of Indian Economic Scene -Concept of Ivlixed Economy-Role of Public& Private Sector-Review of Economic policies. Kerala Scenario-Business journalism & Financial Reporting in Kerala- Origin, Definitions, efernents, features, growth, developments, functions, importance, roles, trends. Early Business Dailies & Magazines-Business Deepika, Dhanakaryam, Dhanam. etc.

10.Research and New Media

Mature and scope of Mass Communication Research- Research Objectives and Research problem_ Research-Definitions. Functions of Research. Types of Research Qualitative, Quantitative , Historical, Descriptive, Explora:ory, Explanatory, Fundamental, Applied, Scientific, Analytical and Experimental Research. Elements of Research., Research process-Identification of the problem. Hypothesis,
Hypothesis formulation. Research design_ Variables and measurements, Reliability and Validity. Process and Precision, ,Analysis of data. Interpretation of Data. Research Sampling, Purpose of Sampling, Principles of Sampling, Advantages of Sampling, Types of Sampling, Sample size. Sampling in qualitative research, Techniques of data Collection, levels of measurement. Questionnaire-Interview schedule. Interview, Types of interview. Observation. Case study, content Analysis, Types of Content Analysis, process of content analysis. Data Processing Tabulation-relationship between mean, medium and mode. Variation or dispersion. Types Mass Communication and Research, Types of Print media research. Research in Electronic Meda, Mass media effect studies_
Introduction to the concept of Cyber Journalism – origin, features and specialities_ Concept of ICE, ICT, Virtual Reality, Information Super Highway/Grid/Glut. Information Society, Global Village, Digital Convergence. Digital Divide, & Netizens_ Conventional journalism, Cyber Journalism. National & International Scenario-Pioneers & Media Organizations of the field. New Media Cyber Journalists-Profession, practice, qualifications, training’s, qualities & skills_ Introduction to Online Journalism-Major News portals-Online Newspapers, Our-pals/ periodicals-Online editions of Natim-io! E. Vernacular Newspapers-features, USP, advantages, limitations. Print editions. Online editions.

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